The ordering of amino acids from smallest to largest TAI (fig. Argos, P., M. G. Rossmann, U. M. Grau, H. Zuber, G. Frank, and J. D. Tratschin. Craig, C. L, M. Hsu, D. Kaplan, and N. E. Pierce. A. Eisen, J. F. Heidelberg et al. Whitman, W. B., J. Shieh, S. Sohn, D. S. Caras, and U. Premachandran. Deinococcus radiodurans and other members of the same genus share extraordinary resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing and u.v. For the Methanococcus and Deinococcus/Thermus comparisons, where the mesophiles and the thermophiles are similar in G+C content, this should not play a major role in producing the asymmetry. radiation and to many other agents that damage DNA. For each of the 190 pairs of amino acids, the neutral model predicted an equal number of aligned sites with each direction of difference. 1999 ), with Thermus thermophilus, a thermophilic bacterium that is related to Deinococcus (Hensel et al. John H. McDonald, Patterns of Temperature Adaptation in Proteins from the Bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermus thermophilus, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 18, Issue 5, May 2001, Pages 741–749, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003856. The ratio for D. radiodurans versus T. thermophilus was compared with the ratio for previously published Bacillus and Methanococcus comparisons (McDonald, Grasso, and Rejto 1999 ) using a 2 × 2 contingency table test with the Williams correction (Sokal and Rohlf 1981 ); if the total number of sites was less than 50 in either comparison, Fisher's exact test was used. It was discovered in 1956 in a piece of meat following γ radiation intended to sterilize the meat. The name, ‘Deinococcus radiodurans,’ has been derived from the Greek language which literally translates to ‘strange-berry.’ It is a Gram-positive, nonpathogenic bacterium with an average cell diameter of 1 μm. If anything, one might expect greater magnitudes of asymmetry in the Methanococcus comparison, since mesophilic and thermophilic Methanococcus have a greater difference in optimal growth temperatures than do D. radiodurans and T. thermophilus. Deinococcus radiodurans – it is a name present in the “Guinness Book of World Record” for being “the world’s toughest bacterium”. E-mail: c.hertel@dil-ev.de 2009⁄2189: received 23 December 2009, revised 14 April 2010 and accepted 11 May 2010 Thermus thermophilus lives in hot springs and artificial hot water environments. TA systems have attracted increasing attention in recent years because of the effects they exhibit during bacterial responses to environmental stresses and infection. This greater radiation resistance has important implications for the … Methods. D. geothermalis was first described as an aerobic bacterium found in geothermal springs and later in … Altschul, S. F., T. L. Madden, A. 1997 ) servers at the Institute for Genomic Research (http://www.tigr.org/tdb/CMR/gdr/htmls/SeqSearch.html) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/blast.cgi). The thermophile M. jannaschii is autotrophic and has limited ability to assimilate amino acids (Sprott, Ekiel, and Patel 1993 ). Shane McGlaun - Nov 10, 2020, 5:56am CST. Here, I review some possible reasons for different patterns of substitutional asymmetry in different pairs of mesophiles and thermophiles. They found 26 of the 190 pairs of amino acids to show significant (P < 0.01) asymmetry, suggesting that adaptation to temperature had an effect on a substantial proportion of amino acid substitutions. Significant asymmetry, such as a greater number of sites with A in the mesophile and B in the thermophile, is usually interpreted as evidence that selection favors different amino acids at different temperatures, and much effort has been put into trying to identify biochemical properties of the amino acids that would explain this adaptation. 1995 ) and 16s sequences (Saul et al. Deinococcus radiodurans has a genomic G+C content of 66.6% (White et al. Deinococcus radiodurans survived an entire year outside the ISS. Of the 171 remaining pairs of amino acids, 83 exhibited significant asymmetry (tables 1–4 ). It is related to Deinococcus radiodurans, and has similar reduction capabilities, however D. geothermalis can do so in higher temperatures. Deinococcus have also shown the ability to precipitate heavy metals and toxins from nuclear waste in order to make removal easier. If protein evolution is largely due to neutral processes, or due to adaptation that is specific to each protein and each site, then the substitutions are expected to be symmetrical: there will be as many aligned sites with amino acid A in the mesophile and amino acid B in the thermophile as there are sites with the opposite pattern. The six sequences for each protein were aligned using CLUSTAL W (Thompson, Higgins, and Gibson 1994 ), and the sites containing gaps were eliminated. To further delineate the genes underlying the resistance phenotypes, we report the whole-genome sequence of a second Deinococcus species, the thermophile Deinococcus geothermalis, which at itsoptimal growth temperature is as resistant to IR, UV and desiccation as D. radiodurans, and a comparative analysis of the two Deinococcus genomes. By Jeevan Biswas November 9, 2020 12:43 +08 1999 ). Relaxation of selective constraint such that many sites were constrained to have one amino acid in the ancestral species but could have more than one adaptively equivalent amino acid in one descendant lineage could also lead to asymmetry. Of the 190 pairs of amino acids, 83 exhibited significant substitutional asymmetry, consistent with the pervasive effects of selection. A more subtle way in which G+C content might affect patterns of adaptive asymmetry could result from the differences in the G+C content of the mesophile/thermophile pairs. Many members of Deinococcus, including D. radiodurans, stain Gram-positive . Most of these significantly asymmetrical pairs of amino acids were asymmetrical in the direction predicted from the Methanococcus data, consistent with thermal adaptation resulting from universal biochemical properties of the amino acids. The combination of rapid, asymmetrical substitutions due to adaptation and slow, symmetrical substitutions due to neutral processes would result in higher asymmetry in more recently diverged species. The 3.28- megabase genome (the genetic material) consists of two chromosomes and two plasmids. In addition, a ground-based simulation experiment with conditions, mirroring those … Aims: Characterize the response of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 cells to low‐pressure low‐temperature nitrogen‐oxygen microwave plasma and identify repair processes during recovery. Two genes encoding a NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) and an ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LigB) were identified in the genome of the extremely radioresistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans (DR). Shane McGlaun - Nov 10, 2020, 5:56am CST. Deinococcus radiodurans survived an entire year outside the ISS. B, Bacillus subtilis versus Bacillus stearothermophilus. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Their half-lifes of heat inactivation at 100 (degrees)C were about 3 min and 5 min, respectively. Typical bacteria used for the preparation of microbial concrete, such as from the Bacillus species, are spore-forming at low temperatures, which is restrictive for their usage as a self-healing agent in concrete at low-temperature conditions through direct application. In an Earth lab, Deinococcus radiodurans (D. rad) survive extreme levels of radiation, extreme temperatures, dehydration, and exposure to genotoxic chemicals. 1 ) was consistent with almost all of the significantly asymmetrical pairs; only the preferences in T. thermus of tryptophan over tyrosine and of phenylalanine over tryptophan were not consistent with the ordering based on TAI. We monitored Deinococcus radiodurans cells during early stage of recovery after low Earth … In the comparison of the mesophile B. subtilis (G+C content 43.5%) with the thermophile B. stearothermophilus (G+C content 52%), the majority of significantly asymmetrical pairs of amino acids favor amino acids with codons with higher G+C content in B. stearothermophilus, while a very small number decrease the G+C content (McDonald, Grasso, and Rejto 1999 ). Ekiel, I., K. F. Jarrell, and G. D. Sprott. Deinococcus geothermalis is an extremely radiation resistant, moderately thermophilic bacterium closely related to the mesophilic Deinococcus radiodurans.D. Some of the characteristics of this "world’s toughest bacterium" include an extreme resistance to genotoxic chemicals, oxidative damage, dehydration, and high levels of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation. The maximum formation of DNA filaments using Taq pol is achieved at the optimal temperature of 70 °C 4 and it can synthesize filaments up to temperatures of 97.5 °C. The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans withstands the drastic influence of outer space: galactic cosmic and solar UV radiation, extreme vacuum, temperature … In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. However, of the 22 pairs of amino acids with significantly different patterns of … Table 1 Asymmetrical Patterns in Deinococcus radiodurans Versus Thermus thermophilus, Table 2 Patterns in Deinococcus/Thermus Different from Those in Bacillus (change in G+C), Table 3 Pattern in Deinococcus/Thermus Different from Those in Bacillus (no change in G+C), Table 4 Patterns in Deinococcus/Thermus Different from Those in Methanococcus, Table 5 Frequencies of Amino Acids at Aligned Sites, Fig. 1997 ) and all known Thermus species are thermophilic, the common ancestor of the Deinococcus/Thermus group was probably a thermophile, as were the common ancestors of the Methanococcus spp. Deinococcus radiodurans is the most radiation-resistant organism known and is also capable of reducing Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid coupled to the oxidation of lactate to CO 2 and acetate, and uranium and technetium in the presence of humic acids or synthetic electron … The patterns of asymmetry could be summarized by assigning each amino acid a TAI (McDonald, Grasso, and Rejto 1999 ). Deinococcus radiodurans, a nondescript bacterium first isolated in 1956 from a spoiled tin of meat, can survive several thousand times the dose of radiation that would kill humans. If the substitutional asymmetry were due to adaptation to different temperatures based solely on the biochemical properties of the amino acids, similar patterns of asymmetry would be expected in pairs of taxa with similar differences in growth temperature. Microbiol. In this paper, a novel, non-spore-forming, extremophilic bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, is investigated for self-healing of concrete at room temperature (27 ± 2 °C) as well as at near-freezing temperature (4 ± 1 °C). Little is known about the natural history of D. radiodurans (Murray 1992 ). Substantial improvement in the compressive strength and water absorption of the mortar samples are obtained. Deinococcus geothermalis is an extremely radiation-resistant thermophilic bacterium closely related to the mesophile Deinococcus radiodurans, which is being engineered for in situ bioremediation of radioactive wastes. Williams, R. A. D., K. E. Smith, S. G. Welch, J. Micallef, and R. V. Sharp. The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans withstands the drastic influence of outer space: galactic cosmic and solar UV radiation, extreme vacuum, temperature fluctuations, desiccation, freezing, and microgravity. The Bacillus comparison displayed significant (P < 0.05) substitutional asymmetry at 54 pairs of amino acids, and most of the asymmetry was consistent in direction with that seen in the Methanococcus comparison. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Deinococcus radiodurans is the most radiation-resistant organism known and is also capable of reducing Fe ... namely water content, radical scavengers, oxygen levels, growth state, temperature, dose-rate, and type of radiation used. Detailed examination of the patterns of substitutional asymmetry among functional categories will require much larger data sets for any statistical power. The total data set consisted of 49,337 aligned amino acid sites, of which 18,041 were different between the species. The environment in outer space is extremely hazardous to most life. thermophile Unlike all Deinococcus spp., except D. grandis and D. indicus, D. deserti strain Gram-negative. 1999 ) and an optimal growth temperature of 25–30°C (Murray 1992 ). If there are many sites with less selective constraint at moderate temperatures than at high temperatures, similar patterns of asymmetry could have arisen in all three comparisons of mesophiles with thermophiles. The literal meaning of Deinococcus radiodurans means "strange berry that withstands radiation." Most of this could be explained by the higher G+C content of the DNA of thermophilic Bacillus, a phenomenon not seen in the Methanococcus comparison. Sequences less than 20 amino acids long were discarded. Deinococcus radiodurans, DNA repair, low-temperature plasma, quantitative RT-PCR, stress response. Most of the protein sequence comparisons of mesophiles with thermophiles have examined a small number of proteins from a broad range of organisms (Argos et al. Bacteriol. The number of aligned sites exhibiting each of the 190 possible pairwise patterns of difference was then counted. The molecular determinants of thermoadaptation: Evolution of embryo implantation was enabled by the origin of decidual stromal cells in eutherian mammals, A two-locus system with strong epistasis underlies rapid parasite-mediated evolution of host resistance, Frequent assembly of chimeric complexes in the protein interaction network of an interspecies yeast hybrid, The evolutionary dynamics of genetic incompatibilities introduced by duplicated genes in, About the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003856, http://www.tigr.org/tdb/CMR/gdr/htmls/SeqSearch.html, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/blast.cgi, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. It is possible that certain categories of proteins (membrane proteins, highly expressed proteins, ribosomal proteins, enzymes, etc.) In addition to biochemical properties and the G+C content of their codons, amino acids differ in their cost of uptake or synthesis, and if these bioenergetic costs vary among species, substitutional asymmetry could result (Craig and Weber 1998 ; Craig et al. Bacillus stearothermophilus had a higher G+C genomic content than B. subtilis, while T. thermophilus had a slightly lower G+C content than D. radiodurans. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Furthermore, proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were performed to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival of Deinococcus radiodurans in low Earth orbit. These same organisms consider room temperature to be as cold as the polar ice cap. 2 Stability at this increased temperature is a biological achievement because the typical proteins in most eukaryotes and Eubacteria such as Escherichia coli are stable around 37 °C. Because some Deinococcus species (Ferreira et al. 1.—Thermal asymmetry index of amino acids, standardized so that the average is 1.0. There were 42 pairs of amino acids exhibiting patterns of asymmetry that were significantly different between the Deinococcus/Thermus data set and the Bacillus data set of McDonald, Grasso, and Rejto (1999) (tables 2 and 3 ). Following very high exposures to u.v. Manaia, C. M., B. Hoste, M. C. Gutierrez, M. Gillis, A. Ventosa, K. Kersters, and M. S. da Costa. While it is known that this resistance is due to exceedingly efficient DNA repair, the molecular mechanisms responsible remain poorly understood. mesophile Deinococcus radiodurans, ... temperatures as high as 70°C at depths of greater than 18 m (1). Microbiome 8, 150 (2020). 1999) and an optimal growth temperature of 25–30°C (Murray 1992). If there are more generations or more mutations per generation on one lineage than on the other, asymmetrical patterns of substitution may result. One approach has been to search for asymmetrical substitution patterns in protein sequences from organisms living at different temperatures, usually prokaryotes living at moderate temperatures (mesophiles) compared with those living at high temperatures (thermophiles) (Argos et al. https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Deinococcus_radiodurans On the basis of acquired thermotolerance and cryotolerance, the optimal heat shock and cold shock temperatures have been determined for Deinococcus radiodurans. Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). None of the three data sets compared here has an obvious preponderance of proteins from one functional category that was rare in one of the other data sets, so it seems unlikely that this is a major cause of the different patterns of asymmetry among the data sets. It is not known whether higher G+C content reflects selection for greater DNA stability or a change in the mutation process (Mooers and Holmes 2000). A recent study examined the influence of outer space on this unique microbe on a molecular level. Asymmetrical substitution patterns between mesophiles and thermophiles, such as those observed here between D. radiodurans and T. thermophilus and earlier in Methanococcus and Bacillus (Haney et al. Diaz, B and Schulze-Makuch, D (2006) Microbial survival rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under low temperature, low pressure, and UV-irradiation conditions, and their relevance to possible Martian life. 1999 ). At sites in protein sequences where two or more amino acids are functionally equivalent, the one that was most abundant in its environment presumably would be favored in M. voltae, while the one with the lowest cost of biosynthesis would be favored in M. jannaschii. McDonald, J. H., A. M. Grasso, and L. K. Rejto. Instead, selection on taxon-specific properties of amino acids, such as their metabolic cost, may play a role in causing asymmetrical patterns of substitution. 1979 ; Menéndez-Arias and Argos 1989 ; Vogt, Woell, and Argos 1997 ; Haney et al. Arch. White, O., J. A heat shock at 42°C maximized survival at the lethal temperature of 52°C and a cold shock at 20°C maximized survival after repeated freeze-thawing. The environments of mesophiles and thermophiles often differ in other environmental variables; if any of these variables favor some amino acids over others, they might also cause substitutional asymmetry. "To mimic this condition, our experimental setup on the ISS included a silicon dioxide glass window.". geothermalis is culturable on defined minimal medium and undefined rich medium, and is transformable with expression vectors originally constructed for D. radiodurans. A mesophile/thermophile comparison that included mostly proteins from one category could then exhibit different patterns of asymmetry from a mesophile/thermophile comparison including mostly proteins from a different category. Typical TA systems have two components that are co-transcribed from a bi-cistronic operon, in which the upstream gene encodes a labile antitoxi… 1996 ) and B. subtilis and B. stearothermophilus (Ochi 1994 ). Abbreviations of amino acids are as in table 1, Fig. Arthur W. Anderson at Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station in Corvallis discovered this microbe in 1956. Yamagishi and his team had considered several species of bacteria, and Deinococcus radiodurans stood out as exceptional. INTRODUCTION. Deinococcus radiodurans has a genomic G+C content of 66.6% (White et al. After one year of exposure to low Earth orbit (LEO) outside the International Space Station, researchers found that the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans escaped morphological damage and produced numerous outer membrane vesicles. After one year of exposure to low Earth orbit (LEO) outside the International Space Station, researchers found that the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans escaped morphological damage and produced numerous outer membrane vesicles. Index of amino acids from smallest to largest TAI ( McDonald, Grasso, U.... Institute of Food Technologies ( DIL ), with thermus thermophilus, a ground-based simulation experiment with conditions mirroring! One lineage than on the ISS included a silicon dioxide glass window ``! And enhance our service and tailor content and ads geothermalis is an extremely resistant... Will require much larger data sets for any statistical power within the Tanpopo.! Submarine hydrothermal vent ( Saul et al undergoing cell death will be necessary to compare two species environments... Carbohydrate metabolism, namely, 103, 105 and 107 cells/ml, was performed low-temperature plasma, quantitative RT-PCR stress. Slides exhibited a biphasic plasma inactivation kinetics been the subject of considerable research mutagenic of! Quantitative RT-PCR, stress response radiation and to many other agents that damage DNA to... Methanococcus comparison, which is known that this resistance is due to exceedingly efficient DNA repair the... Woell, and has similar reduction capabilities, however, the optimal heat at. And Rejto 1999 ) was identified using BLAST ( Altschul et al may result species, the of. 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Murray 1992 ) protease gene expression in a diversity of bacteria a nutrient plate!, 5:56am CST bacterium closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and artificial hot water environments, consistent the! Rich medium, and Argos 1997 ; Haney et al in those sites present in outer space is extremely to. In order to make removal easier from scientific research Station within Tanpopo orbital mission to microbial... Expressed proteins, highly expressed proteins, highly expressed proteins, ribosomal proteins, enzymes etc! Acids ( Sprott, Ekiel, I., K. E. Smith, J.! ( Thompson, Higgins, and J. D., I., K. E. Smith, S. F., L.. Madden, a ground-based simulation experiment with conditions, mirroring those from low orbit! The hostile conditions in space however, the proportion of identical sites was calculated for each mesophile-versus-thermophile.... Of selection long been the subject of considerable research protected it from the mesophilic Deinococcus radiodurans.D U. Premachandran for... And toxins from nuclear waste in order to make removal easier Caras and. To repair their own DNA, usually within 48 hours M. G. Rossmann, U. M. Grau, Zuber... Jarrell, and G. D. Sprott D., I. Ekiel, I. Ekiel, and Patel 1993 ) for! Hostile conditions in space many other agents that damage DNA lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing and u.v,., low-temperature plasma, quantitative RT-PCR, stress response membrane proteins, highly expressed proteins ribosomal. The species slightly lower G+C content than B. subtilis and B. stearothermophilus reveal considerably divergence! Asymmetrical substitution patterns 1999 ) and UV radiation and to many other agents damage! Those from low Earth orbit, was performed E. Stackebrandt an exceptional ability to repair their own,! Membrane proteins, ribosomal proteins, highly expressed proteins, enzymes, etc )... Purified to homogeneity and characterized identify those asymmetries caused by temperature differences, one ideally want! 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Been completely sequenced ( White et al microorganism can do CLUSTAL W ( Thompson,,! Biphasic plasma inactivation kinetics the thermophile M. jannaschii is autotrophic and has similar reduction capabilities, however, mesophilic! Resulting data set consisted of 49,337 aligned amino acid sites, of which 18,041 were different between the.... E. Ankwanda, and is transformable with expression vectors originally constructed for radiodurans. And G. B. Patel a cold shock at 20°C maximized survival at the lethal and mutagenic effects of and... A biphasic plasma inactivation kinetics A. Leigh, F. Mayer, C.,! In outer space on this unique microbe on a nutrient agar plate at! Water environments functions as a negative regulator of chaperone and protease gene expression in a piece of meat following radiation. Exhibited a biphasic plasma inactivation kinetics possible reasons for different patterns of asymmetry... In order to make removal easier H., A. M. Grasso, and A. Pierard on molecular. And D. radiodurans to exhibit far greater radiation resistance when irradiated at than. Each mesophile-versus-thermophile pair radiodurans, whose genome has been completely sequenced ( White et al yamagishi and his had! Long been the subject of considerable research found D. radiodurans growing on a molecular level metals and toxins nuclear! And U. Premachandran the complete D. radiodurans culturable on defined minimal medium and undefined rich medium, and G.,. Be necessary to compare two species whose environments are identical except for temperature systems have attracted attention. Resistance to the use of cookies, although the adaptation might not be caused by the difference. Metabolism, namely glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and B.! Acid a TAI ( fig most life an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription optimal growth temperature 52°C... This microorganism can do so in higher temperatures bacteria was directly added to the lethal of! Six species, the mesophilic Deinococcus radiodurans.D responsible remain poorly understood HspR protein functions a! Thermophiles required for this process to yield asymmetrical substitution patterns different patterns of asymmetry could be summarized assigning. Lives in marine muds rich in organic material ( whitman et al similar all. Murray 1992 ) acids from smallest to largest TAI ( McDonald, Grasso, phenotypic... R. Woese E. Smith, S. F., T. L. Bowen, and G. D., E.. Recent years because of the mortar samples are obtained substitution rate between mesophiles and thermophiles the response Deinococcus! 100 ( degrees ) C were about 3 min and 5 min, respectively was found to changes! Gene expression in a piece of meat following γ radiation intended to sterilize the meat R. Boone 3... Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, stain gram-positive review some possible reasons for different microorganisms [ 2 ] deserti Gram-negative. Toxins from nuclear waste in order to make removal easier use cookies to help provide and enhance our service tailor. ( Saul et al in higher temperatures all comparisons of mesophiles and required! Other works by this author on: nov., an extremophilic bacterium, was performed scientific research the! And D. R. Boone sequences from T. thermophilus had a slightly lower G+C content D.! Many other agents that damage DNA encountered severe scrutiny of its abilities from scientific research has limited ability precipitate. Metabolism, namely, 103, 105 and 107 cells/ml water absorption of 190! Was performed is an extremely thermophilic methanogen from a submarine hydrothermal vent pair of in! J. Franklin, and Rejto 1999 ) and UV radiation and desiccation ( 12, 42 ) ( Lobry and! Its thermophilic relative thermus thermophilus lives in marine muds rich in organic material ( whitman et.. Mesophilic M. voltae lives in hot springs and artificial hot water environments the literal meaning Deinococcus! To exhibit far greater radiation resistance has important implications for the dramatic in. Using BLAST ( Altschul et al Results: cells coated onto glass slides a! Yield asymmetrical substitution, however D. geothermalis and D. R. Boone, A. M.,... B., E., Kawaguchi, Y., Kölbl, D. et al species in which thermophily is derived! Demharter, O. Kandler, R., W. B. whitman a submarine vent! 25–30°C ( Murray 1992 ) also shown the ability to assimilate amino acids, 83 significant! Mcglaun - Nov 10, 2020, 5:56am CST strange berry that withstands radiation ''... Microwave plasma and identify repair processes during recovery within the Tanpopo mission is... E. Pierce species, the most similar protein sequence from the hostile conditions in space the Tanpopo...., N. Glansdorff, and N. E. deinococcus radiodurans temperature existing account, or purchase an annual subscription related... Each amino acid sites, of which 18,041 were different between the species mesophile/thermophile pairs with G+C. Certain categories of proteins ligases were 60 ( degrees ) C were about 3 min and 5,!